Hand

Hand Anatomy

Hand Anatomy

The human hand is made up of the wrist, palm, and fingers and consists of 27 bones, 27 joints, 34 muscles, over 100 ligaments and tendons, and many blood vessels and nerves.

The hands enable us to perform many of our daily activities such as driving, writing and cooking. It is important to understand the normal anatomy of the hand to learn more about diseases and conditions that can affect our hands.

Conditions

Injuries & Fractures

Mallet Finger

Mallet finger is a condition where the end of the finger is bent and does not straighten. It occurs when the extensor tendon on the back of the finger is damaged. The finger joint is a hinge-joint that allows bending and straightening of the fingers. Each finger is composed of 3 phalanges bones, joined by 2 interphalangeal joints (IP joints).

Scaphoid Fracture

Scaphoid Fracture

The scaphoid bone is a small, boat-shaped bone in the wrist, which, along with 7 other bones, forms the wrist joint. It is present on the thumb side of the wrist causing it to be at a high risk for fractures. A scaphoid fracture is usually seen in young men aged 20 to 30 years. They can occur at two places: near the thumb or near the forearm.

Arthritis

Arthritis of the Hand & Wrist

Arthritis of Hand

Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of joints. There are several types of arthritis and the most common type is osteoarthritis or wear-and-tear arthritis. Arthritis affects various joints in the body and the arthritis in hand affects the joint at the base of the thumb. Arthritis may also affect the joints of other digits and the symptoms include swelling, pain, stiffness, and malformation all of which interfere with use of the hand.

Arthritis of the Thumb

Arthritis of Hand

Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of joints. There are several types of arthritis; the most common type is osteoarthritis or wear-and-tear arthritis that affects the joint at the base of the thumb. Thumb arthritis is more common in women than men, and usually occurs after the age of 40 years. Patients who have arthritis of the fingers may have swelling, pain, stiffness, and malformation all of which interfere with use of the hand.

Diseases

Boutonniere Deformity

Tendons in your fingers connect the finger bones to finger muscles and help bend and straighten the finger at the joint when the muscles contract. Boutonnière deformity is a condition in which a tendon injury to the middle joint of the finger results in the inability to straighten the affected finger.

CMC Joint Arthritis

The carpometacarpal joint attaches the base of the thumb to the wrist. It is formed from two bones, the metacarpal and trapezium. It allows the hand to grasp objects with a strong grip. People with osteoarthritis of the thumb can experience severe pain, swelling and decreased motion at this joint finding it extremely difficult to do simple activities such as opening and closing the lid of a jar and turning door knobs.

Dupuytren’s Contracture

Dupuytren’s Contracture is a hand condition where thickening of the underlying fibrous tissues of the palm cause the fingers to bend inward. Patients with this condition are unable to fully straighten the affected fingers.

Trigger Finger

Inflammation in the tenosynovium leads to a condition called trigger finger, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis or flexor tendonitis, where one of the fingers or thumb of the hand is caught in a bent position. The affected digit may straighten with a quick snap, like pulling and releasing the trigger on a gun, hence the name trigger finger.

Hand Pain

Hand pain is characterized by distress in the joints and tissues of the hand or fingers. Hand pain can be depicted as pulsating, aching, increased warmth, prickling, irritation and inflexibility. The hand is composed of nerves, bones, blood vessels, muscles, tendons and skin. Each part has its specific function such as nerves transfer sensation, joints control movements, blood vessels maintain circulation, muscles provides motion, tendons anchor the muscles to the bones and skin receives sensations.

Procedures

Hand Surgery

Hand Surgery

Hand surgery is performed to restore the structure and functionality of the fingers, wrist and hand secondary to a traumatic injury, medical condition, severe infection, or birth defect causing pain and/or deformity of the hand. It is performed by trained and certified plastic surgeons. The surgery is done either as an emergency procedure or as an elective procedure depending on the condition and its severity.

Needle Aponeurectomy (Fasciotomy) for Dupuytren’s Disease

Fasciectomy

Dupuytren’s Contracture is a hand condition where thickening of the underlying fibrous tissues of the palm cause the fingers to bend inward. Patients with this condition are unable to fully straighten the affected fingers.

Steroid Injection for Hand

Steriod Injection

Steroids are medications with anti-inflammatory properties that may be injected into areas of the body such as the joints to relieve pain and swelling. They are fast-acting and more effective than oral anti-inflammatory medications which can sometimes cause stomach upset.

Elective Emergency Hand Surgery

Hand surgery is performed to restore the structure and functionality of the fingers, wrist and hand secondary to a traumatic injury, medical condition, severe infection, or birth defect causing pain and/or deformity of the hand. It is performed by trained and certified plastic surgeons. The surgery is done either as an emergency procedure or as an elective procedure depending on the condition and its severity.

Finger Joint Fusion

Fingerjoint Fusion

Finger joint fusion is a surgical procedure to remove the damaged bony ends of a finger joint followed by insertion of a prosthesis to fuse the bones back together. Finger joint fusion is performed to relieve arthritis pain in the fingers.

Arthritis Surgery for Thumb & Digits

Arthritis Surgery for Thumb

Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of joints. There are several types of arthritis; the most common type is osteoarthritis or wear-and-tear arthritis that affects the joint at the base of the thumb. Thumb arthritis is more common in women than men, and usually occurs after the age of 40 years. Patients who have arthritis of the fingers may have swelling, pain, stiffness, and malformation all of which interfere with use of the hand.

Selective Fasciotomy/ Tight Finger Release

Selective Fasciotomy/ Tight Finger Release is a widely employed and effective treatment for mild cases of Dupuytren’s contracture. The procedure is recommended when the contracture interferes with the activities of daily living. The connective tissue attached to the finger that is causing the contracture is cut to release the tension and improve finger mobility.

Others

Hand Therapy

Hand Therapy

Hand Therapy is a rehabilitation technique recommended to improve the strength and restore functional activity of hands in patients with upper extremity injuries. Hand therapy also helps in preventing the injury.